The Effects of Exposure to Antibiotic Waste Water on Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)


  • Kanu Kingsley Chukwuemeka Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria. Author
  • Akwara Amarachi Clara Department of Environmental Management and Toxicology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria. Author
  • Odo Sabastine Nnanna Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria. Author


Tilapia, oxidative stress, antibiotics, acute toxicity, anaemia


Fresh water ecosystem are frequent sinks for effluents including pharmaceutical waste water where they may be toxic to aquatic life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity and characterize the effect of antibiotic effluents on the morphology, haematology and activity of liver antioxidants of Oreochromis niloticus. O. niloticus fingerlings were exposed in duplicates to 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% effluent concentrations, while juveniles with mean total length of 17 cm and mean weight of 77.89 g were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (1/20th and 1/10th of the 96hrs LC50) for 21 days. The 24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96hrs LC50 was 59.337 (50.69 ̶ 68.79) %, 51.50 (27.19 – 74.51) %, 48.70 (41.65 – 55.49) % and 46.853 (40.04 – 53.37) % respectively. The liver weight and hepato somatic index (HSI) reduced significantly in fishes exposed to both sub-lethal concentrations compared to control (p<0.05). Red blood cell (RBC) count, packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) level decreased while malondialdehyde (MDA) level increased significantly (p<0.05) in liver of fishes exposed to 4.68% (1/10th of 96hrs LC50) and 2.34% (1/20th of 96hrs LC50). The Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) of the exposed fishes were not different from the control (p>0.05).The study showed that antibiotic effluents was moderately toxic to O. niloticus fingerlinger. Sub-lethal concnetrations reduced liver weights, induced anaemia, reduced antioxidants activities and induced oxidative stress in liver of exposed fishes.


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How to Cite

Chukwuemeka, K. K., Clara, A. A., & Nnanna, O. S. (2024). The Effects of Exposure to Antibiotic Waste Water on Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Toxicology Digest, 4(1), 45-64.


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