Acute Toxicity of Inorganic Fertilizer, NPK (15:15:15) on Some Biological Parameters of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Burchell, 1822


  • U.I Daniel Fisheries and Hydrobiology Unit, Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Author
  • E. Ezon-Ebi Fisheries and Hydrobiology Unit, Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Author


Clarias gariepinus, inorganic fertilizer, mortality, biological effects


Acute toxicity effects of inorganic fertilizer, NPK (15:15:15) on African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Burchell, 1822, was carried out under laboratory conditions. One hundred and fifty fingerlings of the fish of weight and length 4.5g and 3.9cm respectively, were acclimatized for 14 days. The test fish were divided into five groups (1-5) with 10 fish per group in triplicates. The concentrations were 0.00g/l, 5.00g/l, 15.00g/l, and 25.00g/l of NPK (15:15:15) fertilizer after a preliminary range-finding test. Results showed that the mortality rate increased in concentration and duration of exposure. After 96 hours, mortality was not recorded in the control. 5g/l concentration recorded 10% mortality but increased to 50% in the 10g/l, while the 15g/l and 25g/l recorded 90% mortality. There was a significant difference at p<0.05 in the 5g/l concentration as compared to the 10g/l and 15g/l concentration. The biological effects of the fertilizer in the exposed fish gills were concentration-dependent. It is therefore recommended that excess inorganic fertilizer, NPK (15:15:15) should not be used for pond fertilization to avoid deleterious effects on the fish.


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How to Cite

Daniel, U., & Ezon-Ebi, E. (2024). Acute Toxicity of Inorganic Fertilizer, NPK (15:15:15) on Some Biological Parameters of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Burchell, 1822. Toxicology Digest, 4(1), 131-139.


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